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References

AMD
DME
CRVO
BRVO

AMD

AMD Alliance International. Increasing understanding of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as a chronic disease. AMD Alliance International Web site.
http://www.amdalliance.org/user_files/documents/AMD_
ChronicDiseasePolicy_M03_NoCrops_Low_Res.pdf. April 2011. Published April 2011. Accessed April 2, 2012

AMD.org Macular Degeneration Partnership. AMD.org Web site. http://www.amd.org. Accessed August 31, 2012.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. The Science of AMD Web site. http://www.scienceofamd.org. Accessed March 14, 2014.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Science of CRVO Web site. http://www.scienceofcrvo.org. Accessed March 12, 2014.

Autiero M, Luttun A, Tjwa M, Carmeliet P. Placental growth factor and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1: novel targets for stimulation of ischemic tissue revascularization and inhibition of angiogenic and inflammatory disorders. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1(7):1356-1370.

Boyd SR, Zachary I, Chakravarthy U, et al. Correlation of increased vascular endothelial growth factor with neovascularization and permeability in ischemic central vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(12):1644-1650.

Brown DM, Kaiser PK, Michels M, et al; Anchor Study Group. Ranibizumab versus verteporfin for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(14):1432-1444.

Brown DM, Regillo CD. Anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: applying clinical trial results to the treatment of everyday patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144(4):627-637.

Carmeliet P, Moons L, Luttun A, et al. Synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions. Nat Med. 2001;7(5):575-583.

CNIB. Wet AMD Web site. http://cnib.ca/en/your-eyes/eye-conditions/amd/the-eye/wet/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed March 12, 2013.

Dong A, Xie B, Shen J, et al. Oxidative stress promotes ocular neovascularization. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219(3):544-552.

Imamura Y, Noda S, Hashizume K, et al. Drusen, choroidal neovascularization, and retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction in SOD1-deficient mice: a model of age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(30):11282-11287.

National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health. Facts about age-related macular degeneration. http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts.asp. Updated September 2009. Accessed August 31, 2012.

Nozaki M, Raisler BJ, Sakurai E, et al. Drusen complement components C3a and C51 promote choroidal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(7):2328-2333.

Rosenfeld PJ, Brown DM, Heier JS, et al; for the MARINA Study Group. Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(15):1419-1431.

Strauss O. The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function. Physiol Rev. 2005;85(3):845-881.

Thurman JM, Renner B, Kunchithapautham K, et al. Oxidative stress renders retinal pigment epithelial cells susceptible to complement-mediated injury. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(25):16939-16947.

Visudyne (verteporfin for injection) Summary of Product Characteristics. Nuremburg, Germany: Novartis Pharma GmbH; 2012.

Wong T, Chakravarthy U, Klein R, et al. The natural history and prognosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(1):116-126.

Yamashita H, Eguchi S, Watanabe K, Takeuchi S,Yamashita T, Miura M. Expression of placenta growth factor (PIGF) in ischaemic retinal diseases. Eye (Lond).1999;13(pt 3a):372-374.

DME

Adamis AP, Altaweel M, Bresler NM, et al. Changes in retinal neovascularization after pegaptanib (macugen) therapy in diabetic individuals. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(1):23-28.

Al-Latayfeh M, Silva PS, Sun JK, Aiello LP. Antiangiogenic therapy for ischemic retinopathies. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2(6):a006411.

American Society of Retina Specialists. What is a retina specialist? http://www.asrs.org/patients/what-is-a-retina-specialist. Accessed March 12, 2014.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Advocating for improved treatment and outcomes for wet age-related macular degeneration. The Angiogenesis Foundation Web site.
http://www.scienceofamd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/AMD
_Final_Report_2012.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2012.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Science of DME Web site. http://www.scienceofdme.org/en. Accessed March 12, 2014.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Science of CRVO Web site. http://www.scienceofcrvo.org. Accessed March 12, 2014.

Autiero M, Luttun A, Tjwa M, Carmeliet P. Placental growth factor and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1: novel targets for stimulation of ischemic tissue revascularization and inhibition of angiogenic and inflammatory disorders. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1(7):1356-1370.

Boyd SR, Zachary I, Chakravarthy U, et al. Correlation of increased vascular endothelial growth factor with neovascularization and permeability in ischemic central vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(12):1644-1650.

Boyer DS, Hopkins JJ, Sorof J, et al. Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2013;4(6):151-169.

Carmeliet P, Moons L, Luttun A, et al. Synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions. Nat Med. 2001;7(5):575-583.

The College of Optometrists. What is an optometrist? http://www.college-optometrists.org/en/college/about-optometry/What_is_an_optometrist.cfm. Accessed March 12, 2014.

The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyecareAmerica What is an ophthalmologist? http://www.eyecareamerica.org/eyecare/tmp/what-is-an-ophthalmologist.cfm. Accessed March 12, 2014.

Kampik A. Management of diabetic macular edema. Retina Today. July/August 2011:64-66. http://bmctoday.net/retinatoday/pdfs/RT0811_feature_kampik.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2014.

Yamashita H, Eguchi S, Watanabe K, Takeuchi S,Yamashita T, Miura M. Expression of placenta growth factor (PIGF) in ischaemic retinal diseases. Eye (Lond).1999;13(pt 3a):372-374.

CRVO

The American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmic Pearls: Intravitreal Kenalog Injections. http://www.aao.org/publications/eyenet/200410/pearls/cfm. Accessed April 29, 2014.

The American Association of Ophthalmology. Eyesmart Web site. http://www.geteyesmart.org. Accessed March 13, 2014.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Science of AMD Web site. http://www.scienceofamd.org. Accessed March 14, 2014.

The Angiogenesis Foundation. Science of CRVO Web site. http://www.scienceofcrvo.org. Accessed March 12, 2014.

Autiero M, Luttun A, Tjwa M, Carmeliet P. Placental growth factor and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1: novel targets for stimulation of ischemic tissue revascularization and inhibition of angiogenic and inflammatory disorders. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1(7):1356-1370.

Boyd SR, Zachary I, Chakravarthy U, et al. Correlation of increased vascular endothelial growth factor with neovascularization and permeability in ischemic central vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(12):1644-1650.

Carmeliet P, Moons L, Luttun A, et al. Synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions. Nat Med. 2001;7(5):575-583.

The College of Optometrists. What is an optometrist? http://www.college-optometrists.org/en/college/about-optometry/What_is_an_optometrist.cfm. Accessed March 12, 2014.

The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyecareAmerica What is an ophthalmologist? http://www.eyecareamerica.org/eyecare/tmp/what-is-an-ophthalmologist.cfm. Accessed March 12, 2014.

Ozurdex® (dexamethasone) Intravitreal Implant. Summary of Product Characteristics. Westport, County Mayo, Ireland: Allergan Pharmaceuticals Ireland; 2010.

Yamashita H, Eguchi S, Watanabe K, Takeuchi S,Yamashita T, Miura M. Expression of placenta growth factor (PIGF) in ischaemic retinal diseases. Eye (Lond).1999;13(pt 3a):372-374.

BRVO

American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyeSmart. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) symptoms. ‭http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-symptoms.cfm. Accessed ‭June 2, 2015. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyeSmart. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) diagnosis. ‭http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-diagnosis.cfm. Accessed ‭June 2, 2015. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyeSmart. What is a macular hole? ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ ‭http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/macular-hole.cfm. Accessed June 2, 2015.

American Foundation for the Blind. The different types of eye care professionals. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ ‭http://www.visionaware.org/info/your-eye-condition/eye-health/types-of-eye-care-professionals-‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ ‭5981/125. Accessed June 2, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

American Society of Retina Specialists. What is a retina specialist? https://www.asrs.org/patients/what-‭is-a-retina-specialist. Accessed June 2, 2015. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

An Informational Guide to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion. The Angiogenesis Foundation website. http://www.angio.org/downloads/Informational_Guide-Science_of_CRVO.pdf Accessed June 16, 2015.

Bakker R. Household tips for people with low vision. Cornell University. ‬‬‬ ‭http://www.environmentalgeriatrics.com/pdf/handouts/household_tips_low_vision.pdf. Published July 1, ‭2005. Accessed June 4, 2015. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Brand CS. Management of retinal vascular diseases: a patient-centric approach. Eye. 2012;26(suppl 2s):S1-S6. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Campochiaro PA, Clark WL, Boyer DS, et al. Intravitreal aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: the 24-week results of the VIBRANT study. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(3):538-544.

Colby K. The eye examination. Merck Manual [consumer version]. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‭https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/eye-disorders/diagnosis-of-eye-disorders/the-eye-examination. ‭Revised July 2013. Accessed June 2, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Gallemore RP, Wallsh J, Sharareh B, Gallemore E. Management of retinal vein occlusion: what the ‭clinical trials tell us. Retina Today. April 2013:64-67. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Hayreh SS. Retinal vein occlusion. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1994;42(3):109-132.

Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Branch retinal vein occlusion: natural history of visual outcome. JAMA ‭Ophthalmol. 2014;132(1):13-22. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Karia N. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010;4:809-‭816. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Kolar P. Risk factors for central and branch retinal vein occlusion: a meta-analysis of published clinical ‭data. J Ophthalmol. 2014. ‭doi: 10.1155/2014/724780.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Laouri M, Chen E, Looman E, Gallagher M. The burden of disease of retinal vein occlusion: a review of ‭the literature. Eye. 2011;25(8):981-988. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Noma H, Shimada K, Mimura T. Foveal sensitivity and morphology in major and macular branch retinal ‭vein occlusion. Open Ophthalmol J. 2012;6:104-109. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Office for the Blind and Visually Impaired: State of Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division ‭of Long Term Care. Tips for living with low vision. www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/publications/p2/p23201.pdf. Published October 2013. Accessed June 1, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Patient Information: Anti-VEGF Intravitreal Injection Treatment. Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. http://www.moorfields.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Anti-VEGF%20intravitreal%20injection%20treatment_1.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2015.

Rehak J, Rehak M. Branch retinal vein occlusion: pathogenesis, visual prognosis, and treatment ‬‭modalities. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33(2):111-131. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Rogers S, McIntosh RL, Dip Journ BG, et al; for the International Eye Disease Consortium. The ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬prevalence of retinal vein occlusion: pooled data from population studies from the United States, ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬Europe, Asia, and Australia. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(2):313-319.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB). Anti-VEGF treatment. https://www.rnib.org.uk/eye-health-eye-conditions-z-eye-conditions/anti-vegf-treatment. Accessed June 24, 2015.

Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB). Retinal vein occlusion. https://www.rnib.org.uk/eye-‭health-eye-conditions-z-eye-conditions/retinal-vessel-occlusion. Accessed June 2, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬